John William Godward
Godward was a Victorian Neo-classicist, and therefore a follower in theory of Frederic Leighton. However, he is more closely allied stylistically to Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, with whom he shared a penchant for the rendering of Classical architecture, in particular, static landscape features constructed from marble.
The vast majority of Godward's extant images feature women in Classical dress, posed against these landscape features, though there are some semi-nude and fully nude figures included in his oeuvre (a notable example being In The Tepidarium (1913), a title shared with a controversial Alma-Tadema painting of the same subject that resides in the Lady Lever Art Gallery). The titles reflect Godward's source of inspiration: Classical civilisation, most notably that of Ancient Rome (again a subject binding Godward closely to Alma-Tadema artistically), though Ancient Greece sometimes features, thus providing artistic ties, albeit of a more limited extent, with Leighton.
Given that Classical scholarship was more widespread among the potential audience for his paintings during his lifetime than in the present day, meticulous research of detail was important in order to attain a standing as an artist in this genre. Alma-Tadema was, as well as a painter, an archaeologist who attended historical sites and collected artefacts that were later used in his paintings: Godward, too, studied such details as architecture and dress, in order to ensure that his works bore the stamp of authenticity. In addition, Godward painstakingly and meticulously rendered those other important features in his paintings, animal skins (the paintings Noon Day Rest (1910) and A Cool Retreat (1910) contain superb examples of such rendition) and wild flowers (Nerissa (1906), illustrated above, and Summer Flowers (1903) are again excellent examples of this).
The appearance of beautiful women in studied poses in so many of Godward's canvases causes many newcomers to his works to categorise him mistakenly as being Pre-Raphaelite, particularly as his palette is often a vibrantly colourful one. However, the choice of subject matter (ancient civilisation versus, for example, Arthurian legend) is more properly that of the Victorian Neoclassicist: however, it is appropriate to comment that in common with numerous painters contemporary with him, Godward was a 'High Victorian Dreamer', producing beautiful images of a world which, it must be said, was idealised and romanticised, and which in the case of both Godward and Alma-Tadema came to be criticised as a world-view of 'Victorians in togas'. Related Paintings of John William Godward :. | Study of Campaspe | A Priestess | Flabellifera | Study of Campaspe | The Ring by John William Godward |
Related Artists:MAZO, Juan Bautista Martinez del
Spanish Baroque Era Painter, ca.1612-1667Christian Ernst Bernhard Morgenstern
(29 September 1805 - 12 Februar 1867) was a German landscape painter. Morgenstern is regarded as one of the pioneers in Germany of early Realism in painting. He gained this reputation in Hamburg 1826-1829 together with his contemporary Adolph Friedrich Vollmer while both were still studying; from 1830 onwards, Morgenstern, together with Friedrich Wasmann, Johan Christian Dahl and Adolph Menzel, introduced Munich to Realist painting.
Morgenstern was born in Hamburg as one of six children to a painter of miniatures, Johann Heinrich Morgenstern (1769-1813). After the early death of his father he was placed as an apprentice in the graphic workshop of the brothers Suhr. Cornelius Suhr took the young Morgenstern as his servant on a two-year journey through Germany to publicise the panorama prints which the brothers Suhr produced. 1822 followed another long journey to St. Petersburg, where they stayed for a year and to Moscow. On their return to Hamburg Morgenstern succeeded in leaving Suhr (Vollmer took his place). He became a student of the Hamburg painter Siegfried Bendixen with whom he stayed from 1824 to 1827, then continued his studies at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen (1827-1828) and undertook study journeys through Sweden and Norway. Bendixen introduced him to the wealthy aristocrat and supporter of the arts, Carl Friedrich von Rumohr, patron to many young Hamburg artists, on whose estate in Holstein he spent several summers. In 1830 Morgenstern went to Munich on Ruhmor's advice. He settled there permanently while undertaking extensive yearly study trips: for the first years through Bavaria, then in the summer of 1836 and in the following summers to the Alsace as guest of a patron of the arts. The winter 1839/40 he returned to Hamburg to stay with his mother. In 1841 he visited Venice and Trieste together with the landscape painter Eduard Schleich and in 1843, and again in 1846 the central Alps. In the summer of 1850 he stayed on Heligoland. Niccolo di Pietro Gerini
Italian Painter, active ca.1368-1415
died in Florence in 1415, earned reputation of an important Italian painter. He represents giottesque school, in the tradition of the Andrea di Orcagna (1320-1368) and of Taddeo Gaddi. His father Pietro Geri is registered as a member of Lucas Guild in 1339. Niccolo worked mainly in Florence, although he also carried out commissions in Rome (Vatican), Pisa and Prato.
He was first recorded in 1368 as a member of the Arte dei Medici e Speziali in Florence but is identifiable with the Niccolo dipintore who collaborated with Jacopo di Cione on frescoes for the Guildhall of the Judges and Notaries in Florence in 1366. It is self-evident that he is the Niccolaio dipintore who worked with Jacopo di Cione on the altarpiece of the Coronation of the Virgin (presently in London, National Gallery) for St Pier Maggiore, Florence in 1370 and was paid 12 golden florins per disegnare la tavola dell altare in November of the same year. He designed the altarpiece and the elaborate throne canopy with his usual fine painting and detailed ornaments whilst Jacopo di Cione was depicting side saints. This altarpiece is amongst of very few largest commissioned in 14th century Florence. It was seemingly commissioned by Albizzi family.
He was collaborating with Jacopo di Cione on Coronation of the Virgin (Accademia, Florence) in 1372. Offner and Steinweg suggest that he was responsible for the design and fine painting and Jacopo for the execution of saints. It was commissioned by the mint of Florence Zecca Vecchia on the same year.
In 1383 Gerini again worked with Cione on a fresco of the Annunciation in the Palazzo dei Priori, Volterra. This fresco clearly shows the work of two very different artists: Niccolo di Pietro Gerini (design and very fine painting) and Jacopo di Cione (broadly painted saints and side decoration). In 1386 Niccolo frescoed the façade of the Bigallo, Florence. He also frescoed Sant Ambrogio church in Florence
Gerini performed the Crocefissione of St Felicita church in Florence.
His hand is clearly on sacrestia of the basilica of Saint Croce to Florence with Scenes of the life of Christ. Between 1391 and 1392 he worked in Prato where he frescoed Palazzo Datini, church of Saint Francisco with Lorenzo di Niccolo and Agnolo Gaddi.
He also frescoed capitolare of the church of Saint Francisco, Pisa.
Very typically for Gothic depiction Gerini figures have large chins, sloping foreheads, and sharp noses whilst their bodies are squat and frontally displaced.
Another important artist Lorenzo di Niccol?? di Martino was trained in Niccol?? di Pietro Gerini workshop and later collaborated with the master but was not his son as sometimes erroneously stated. Gerini though had a son Bindo di Niccolo di Pietro Gerini, born in 1363, who is registered as member of Lucas Guild since 1408.
Niccolo di Pietro Gerini works can be found in major art galleries of Rome, Vatican, Florence, London, Milan, New York, Los Angeles, Amsterdam, Berlin, Paris, St Petersburg, Boston, Cambridge, Budapest, Birmingham, Pegalo, Prato, Pisa, Altenburg, Avignon, Denver and several other museums.